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儿童权利委员会将于2014年5月26日至6月13日在日内瓦召开第六十六届会议(部分翻译)

儿童权利委员会
背景信息

2014年5月22日

印度、印度尼西亚、约旦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、圣卢西亚和英国的儿童权利状况即将接受审议
 
儿童权利委员会将于2014年5月26日至6月13日在日内瓦威尔逊宫召开会议,根据《儿童权利公约》条款及其两份任择议定书,审议印度、印度尼西亚、约旦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、圣卢西亚和英国促进和保护儿童权利的问题。

在开幕会议上,委员会将通过议程和工作方案。会议期间,委员会除了审议缔约国报告外还将讨论未来工作的组织和工作方法。

印度将根据《公约》呈交其第三和第四次合并定期报告CRC/C/IND/3-4。委员会关于第二次定期报告(2004年1月审议)的结论性意见和建议请见CRC/C/15/Add.228。印度还将根据关于儿童卷入武装冲突问题的任择议定书以及关于买卖儿童、儿童卖淫和儿童色情制品问题的任择议定书分别呈交其首份报告,文号为CRC/OPAC/C/IND/1CRC/C/OPSC/IND/1

印度尼西亚将根据《公约》呈交其第三和第四次合并定期报告CRC/C/IDN/3-4。委员会关于第二次定期报告(2004年1月审议)的结论性意见和建议请见CRC/C/15/Add.223

约旦将根据《公约》呈交其第四和第五次合并定期报告CRC/C/JOR/4-5。委员会关于第三次定期报告(2006年9月审议)的结论性意见和建议请见CRC/C/JOR/CO/3。约旦还将根据关于儿童卷入武装冲突问题的任择议定书以及关于买卖儿童、儿童卖淫和儿童色情制品问题的任择议定书分别呈交其首份报告,文号为CRC/C/OPAC/JOR/1CRC/C/OPSC/JOR/1

吉尔吉斯斯坦将根据《公约》呈交其第三和第四次合并定期报告CRC/C/KGZ/3-4。委员会关于第二次定期报告(2004年9月审议)的结论性意见和建议请见CRC/C/15/Add.244

圣卢西亚将根据《公约》呈交其第二至第四次合并定期报告CRC/C/LCA/2-4。委员会关于首次定期报告(2005年5月审议)的结论性意见和建议请见CRC/C/15/Add.258

英国将根据关于买卖儿童、儿童卖淫和儿童色情制品问题的任择议定书呈交其首份报告,报告请见CRC/C/OPSC/GBR/1

其他有关委员会工作的文件可在委员会网页查看。

由独立专家构成的委员会成立于1991年,旨在监督《儿童权利公约》各缔约国落实公约的情况。公约为各项儿童权利赋予全面的国际法保障。委员会还监督公约的两项任择议定书的落实情况:第一项议定书关于儿童卷入武装冲突问题,第二项则关于买卖儿童、儿童卖淫和儿童色情制品问题。关于来文程序的第三项任择议定书由联合国大会在2011年12月19日通过。该文件将允许儿童根据公约及其另外两项任择议定书提交关于具体侵犯自身人权的投诉。此议定书于2012年2月28日开放签署,并在2014年4月14日,也就是第十份批准书或加入书交存后三个月生效。

到目前为止,共有194个国家批准或加入公约,使其成为全球最被广泛接受的国际人权文书。只有南苏丹尚未签署公约,索马里和美国签署但未批准公约。公约各缔约国应向委员会派出代表,提交其关于落实儿童权利的做法的报告。各国必须在加入公约后的前两年进行报告,随后每五年进行报告。委员会审议每一份报告,并以“结论性意见和建议”的形式对缔约国提出委员会的关注问题及建议。

The Convention on the Rights of the Child

The General Assembly adopted the Convention unanimously on 20 November 1989, 30 years after the adoption of the Declaration on the Rights of the Child.  The Convention renders States parties legally accountable for their actions towards children.  Work on drafting the Convention began in 1979 – the International Year of the Child – at the Commission on Human Rights.  The Convention was opened for signature on 26 January 1990.  That day, 61 countries signed it, a record first-day response. It entered into force just seven months later, on 2 September 1990.

Ratifying the Convention requires a review of national legislation to ensure it meets the provisions of the treaty.  The Convention, inter alia, stipulates that every child has the right to life, and that States shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child; that every child has the right to a name and nationality from birth; and that the child's best interests shall be a primary consideration when they are dealt with by courts, welfare institutions or administrative authorities.  The Convention recognizes the right of children to be heard. 

States shall ensure that each child enjoys full rights without discrimination or distinction of any kind, and that children should not be separated from their parents, unless by competent authorities for their well-being.  States shall facilitate reunification of families by permitting travel into, or out of, their territories and protect children from physical or mental harm and neglect, including sexual abuse or exploitation.  Children with disabilities shall have the right to education, special treatment and care; primary education shall be free and compulsory and discipline in school should respect the child's dignity; capital punishment or life imprisonment shall not be imposed for crimes committed before the age of 18; no child under 15 should take any part in hostilities and children exposed to armed conflict shall receive special protection.  Children of minority and indigenous populations shall freely enjoy their own cultures, religions and languages.

Optional Protocols


In May 2000, the General Assembly adopted the two Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.  The Optional Protocols entered into force in 2002.  Currently, 155 countries have ratified the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict; and 167 States have ratified the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. A third Optional Protocol was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 19 December 2011.  It provides for a Communications Procedure to allow individual children to submit complaints regarding specific violations of their rights under the Convention and the first two Optional Protocols. To date, 10 States have ratified it: Albania, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Gabon, Germany, Montenegro, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain and Thailand.

Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography


Although the Convention requires States parties to prohibit the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, this Optional Protocol extends the measures that States parties must undertake to protect children from these violations of their human rights.  The Optional Protocol not only defines the sale of children, child pornography and child prostitution, but also provides a non-exhaustive list of acts and activities which shall be criminalized by States parties.  This criminalization also includes attempts, complicity, or participation in such acts or activities.  The Optional Protocol sets out the bases for States parties to assert jurisdiction over actionable practices relating to the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography (including extra-territorial legislation) and to make provisions about extradition of alleged offenders.  Based on the principle of the best interests of the child, the Optional Protocol also sets forth provisions for protecting and assisting child victims during all stages of the criminal justice process.  Preventive measures, as well as redress, rehabilitation and recovery of child victims, are also covered.  For the implementation of all these provisions, the Optional Protocol asks for a close collaboration among States parties.

Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict


The Optional Protocol establishes that no person under the age of 18 shall be subject to compulsory recruitment into regular armed forces, and imposes an obligation on States to raise the minimum age for voluntary recruitment to at least 16 years. Upon ratification of or accession to the Optional Protocol, countries must deposit a binding declaration stating their minimum age for voluntary recruitment and the safeguards in place to ensure that that recruitment is voluntary.  States Parties to the Protocol shall also ensure that members of their armed forces under 18 years of age do not take direct part in hostilities.  In addition, armed groups separate from the armed forces of a State should not, under any circumstances, recruit or use in hostilities persons under 18.  States parties are required to take all feasible measures to prevent the recruitment and use of children by any groups, including the criminalization of such practices.

Optional Protocol on a Communications Procedure


This new Optional Protocol empowers children to complain about specific violations of their human rights under the Convention and its first two optional protocols to an international body.  The Optional Protocol was transmitted by the Human Rights Council to the General Assembly in June 2011.  It establishes a procedure to bring complaints under the Convention similar to those that already exist for other core human rights treaties.  Upon receiving a complaint, the Committee will examine it to determine whether the Convention has been violated.  The Committee will guarantee that child-sensitive procedures and safeguards are put in place to prevent the manipulation of the child by those acting on his or her behalf under the Protocol.  While it is examining the complaint, the Committee may request the State to adopt interim measures to prevent possible irreparable damage to the child.  It may also request protection measures to prevent reprisals, including further human rights violations, ill-treatment or intimidation, for having submitted such complaints. If the Convention is found to have been violated, the Committee will make specific recommendations for action to the State responsible.  Under the Optional Protocol the Committee may now initiate inquiries into grave and systematic violations of the Convention and its first two Optional Protocols. The Optional Protocol also provides for an inter-state communications procedure. The Committee adopted the rules of procedure for this Optional Protocol (CRC/C/62/3) during its 62nd session.

The Protocol opened for signature on 28 February 2012 and entered into force on 14 April 2014, three months after the deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification.

Committee Membership


The Committee is made up of 18 Experts of high moral standing and recognized competence in the field of children's rights. The following members, nominated by the States parties to serve in their personal capacity, have been elected or re-elected to the Committee: Amal Aldoseri (Bahrain); Aseil Al-Shehail (Saudi Arabia); Jorge Cardona Llorens (Spain); Sara de Jesus Oviedo Fierro (Ecuador); Bernard Gastaud (Monaco); Peter Guran (Slovakia); Maria Herczog (Hungary); Olga Khazova (Russian Federation); Hatem Kotrane (Tunisia); Gehad Madi (Egypt); Benyam Dawit Mezmur (Ethiopia); Yasmeen Muhamad Shariff (Malaysia); Wanderlino Nogueira Neto (Brazil); Maria Rita Parsi (Italy); Kirsten Sandberg (Norway); Hiranthi Wijemanne (Sri Lanka); and Renate Winter (Austria).  Agnes Akosua Aidoo (Ghana) resigned in October 2013 and the Government of Ghana has not replaced her yet.

 

Tentative Timetable for Consideration of Reports

Following is a tentative timetable for the consideration of reports from States parties to the Convention during this session:

Monday, 26 May

10 a.m.         Opening of the session and adoption of agenda
3 p.m.          Jordan fourth to fifth periodic report

Tuesday, 27 May

10 a.m.        Jordan (continued)

3 p.m.          Jordan - Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child       Pornography and Optional Protocol on the Involvement of
                      Children in Armed Conflict
 
Wednesday, 28 May


10 a.m.        Kyrgyzstan third to fourth periodic report

3 p.m.          Kyrgyzstan (continued)

Thursday, 29 May


Holiday

Friday, 30 May


10 a.m.        United Kingdom - Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

3 p.m.          Closed meeting

Monday, 2 June


10 a.m.        Closed meeting

3 p.m.          India third to fourth periodic report
 
Tuesday, 3 June 


10 a.m.        India (continued)

3 p.m.          India - Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child       Pornography and Optional Protocol on the Involvement of
                     Children in Armed Conflict

Wednesday, 4 June


10 a.m.        Closed meeting

3 p.m.          Closed meeting

Thursday, 5 June


10 a.m.        Indonesia third to fourth periodic report

3 p.m.          Indonesia (continued)

Friday, 6 June
 

10 a.m.         Saint Lucia second to fourth periodic report
3 p.m.           Saint Lucia (continued)

Monday, 9 June

Holiday

Tuesday, 10 June

10 a.m.         Closed meeting
3 p.m.           Closed meeting

Wednesday, 11 June

10 a.m.         Closed meeting
3 p.m.           Closed meeting

Thursday, 12 June

10 a.m.         Closed meeting
3 p.m.           Closed meeting

 

Friday, 13 June

10 a.m.         Closed meeting
3 p.m.           Public closing of session
 
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For use of the information media; not an official record