Report on Countering Islamophobia/Anti-Muslim Hatred to Eliminate Discrimination and Intolerance Based on Religion or Belief

25 February 2021
Authored by
Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief
To the 46th Session of Human Rights Council on 4 & 5 March 2021
A/HRC/46/30 (Advance edited version)


In the present report, the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Ahmed Shaheed examines how Islamophobia/anti-Muslim hatred infringes upon freedom of religion or belief. Perpetuating discrimination, hostility and violence towards Muslim individuals and communities, the phenomenon undercuts the ability of affected Muslims to be Muslim and violates freedom of religion or belief and myriad other human rights. Despite its pervasive impacts, Islamophobia/anti-Muslim hate remains poorly understood and discussions on how to address its impacts are often fraught with tension.

The report: (i) unpacks the concept of Islamophobia, including the processes of essentialization and racialization that propel this form of bias (ii) documents the experiences of affected communities and the human rights impacts (iii) affirms the relevant international human rights framework; and (iv) proposes recommendations to address and mitigate the impacts of Islamophobia consistent with international law.

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