Members of the Working Group on the use of mercenaries

The Working Group is composed of five independent experts, of balanced geographical representation, who are elected by the Human Rights Council for a period of three years, which can be renewed once for an additional three years.


Ms. Sorcha MacLeod (United Kingdom), appointed in 2018 - Chairperson-Rapporteur

Ms. Sorcha MacLeod Dr Sorcha MacLeod (United Kingdom) is a Marie Curie Fellow and Associate Professor at the Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. She is an experienced teacher and researcher in the fields of international human rights law, business and human rights with a focus on private military and security companies, and the privatisation of armed conflicts. She has published widely in these areas. She holds a PhD from the University of Glasgow, and an LLM and LLB(Hons) from the University of Dundee. She is a Guest Lecturer at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, Germany and previously taught at Free University Berlin and the School of Law at the University of Sheffield, UK. In addition to her teaching and research she was involved in the drafting of international standards for the security industry, including a proposed UN treaty, the Montreux Document and the International Code of Conduct for Private Security Providers (ICoC) and has advised civil society, the security industry and governments on human rights compliance.



Ms. Jelena Aparac (Croatia), appointed in 2018

Ms. Jelena Aparac (Croatia) Ms. Jelena Aparac (Croatia) holds a PhD in international public law. Her dissertation focused on "International criminal liability of corporations for international crimes committed in non-international armed conflicts". She also holds an LLM from the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. Dr. Aparac is a lecturer in international humanitarian law, human rights, international criminal law and international refugee law. She has given lectures and conferences at academic institutions around the world and has contributed as an independent expert to various intergovernmental discussions on issues related to international peace and security. She has also participated in drafting several complaints against corporations, and worked as a consultant on refugee protection, humanitarian action and diplomacy, protection of civilians and medical missions in armed conflicts. As a field worker and legal advisor for Médecins sans Frontiéres, Dr. Aparac worked in conflict areas such as South Sudan, Chad/Darfur, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. Her previous experience includes an internship with the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and with the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.



Mr. Ravindran Daniel (India), appointed in 2020

Mr. Ravindran Daniel Mr. Ravindran Daniel is an expert in international human rights law with more than 30 years of experience working on human rights at local, regional and international levels. He specializes in conflict and post-conflict situations. He has served as the Director of the Human Rights Divisions of UN Peace Operations in East Timor, Libya and Sudan. He has held senior positions in the Cambodia and Uganda offices of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. In the 80s, he worked with the International Commission of Jurists in Geneva. He also served as the Secretary of the UN International Enquiry Commission on East Timor. He founded the Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development and was a member of the launching committee that established the International Network for Economic Social and Cultural Rights. He has conducted numerous academic training and workshops for human rights activists in various parts of the world.



Mr. Chris M. A. Kwaja (Nigeria), appointed in 2018

Mr. Chris M. A. Kwaja (Nigeria) Mr. Chris M. A. Kwaja (Nigeria), Ph.D., is currently a Senior Lecturer and Researcher at the Centre for Peace and Security Studies (CPSS), Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Prior to joining the CPSS, he lectured at the Centre for Conflict Management and peace Studies, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria. He is a Visiting Research Fellow with the Centre for Democracy and Development, Abuja, Nigeria. In 2008, He was an exchange fellow of Dispute Resolution at the University of Massachusetts, United States. He is also a recipient of several research awards such as the CODESRIA Governance Institute on Private Military and Security Companies, 2009; United Nations Mandated University for Peace Doctoral Research Award, 2009; as well as the Peace Fellow Award of the West Africa Research Centre, 2010. He has worked on the activities of corporate non-corporate mercenaries in Africa, with specific reference to Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan and Darfur.



Previous members

  • Ms. Lilian Bobea (Dominican Republic)
    2018-2021
  • Mr. Saeed Mokbil (Yemen)
    2014-2020
  • Mr. Gabor Rona (United States of America)
    2011-2018
  • Ms. Patricia Arias (Chile)
    2011-2018
  • Mr. Anton Katz (South Africa)
    2011-2018
  • Ms. Elzbieta Karska (Poland)
    2011-2018
  • Ms. Faiza Patel (Pakistan)
    2011-2014
  • Ms. Najat Al-Hajjaji (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)
    2005 - 2011
  • Ms. Amada Benavides de Pérez (Colombia)
    2005 - 2011
  • Mr. José Luis Gómez del Prado (Spain)
    2005-2011
  • Mr. Alexander Nikitin (Russian Federation)
    2005 - 2011
  • Ms. Shaista Shameem (Fiji)
    2005 - 2010


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Working Group on the use of mercenaries
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